Frequently Asked Questions

Endothelial Dysfunction

What is the endothelium?
The endothelium is the single-cell-thick interior lining of all the blood vessels in your body. Endothelial cells play key roles in regulating blood flow and the passage of materials and white blood cells into and out of the bloodstream.

What is endothelial dysfunction?
Loss of proper endothelial function, i.e. endothelial dysfunction, is a hallmark of cardiovascular disease (CVD). It is regarded as an important early event in the development of atherosclerosis, which occurs when your artery wall thickens as a result of the accumulation of calcium and fatty materials.

Which risk factors lead to endothelial dysfunction?
A number of emerging and classical risk factors greatly increases your chance of endothelial damage, including: physical inactivity, poor diet, tobacco smoking, high cholesterol, hypertension, aging, and diabetes.

What are the consequences of endothelial dysfunction?
Disruption of mechanisms mediated by endothelial cells initiates a chronic inflammatory process which leads to atherosclerosis. This can trigger a number of CVD events, such as coronary heart disease and cerebrovascular diseases, which can result in a heart attack and/or stroke, respectively.

How is endothelial dysfunction treated? Can it be reversed?
Lifestyle, dietary, and pharmacological interventions can treat and even reverse damage done to your endothelium. This includes: getting more exercise, eating healthier foods, quitting smoking tobacco, taking lipid-lowering medications like statins and taking antihypertensiveslike ACE inhibitors, to name a few.

The AngioDefender System

How does the AngioDefender system work?
The AngioDefender™ system measures the health of your endothelium using a process called Flow-Mediated Dilation (%FMD). It does this by running through a series of inflations and deflations to analyze the endothelium’s response to increased blood flow. The healthier your endothelium, the higher your %FMD.

Why should I get tested with the AngioDefender system?
Before the AngioDefender system, measuring damage to your arteries required highly technical, expensive, and even invasive procedures. Moreover, the AngioDefender system identifies endothelial dysfunction earlier than traditional measures such as cholesterol counts. Now you can receive an accurate and consistent assessment of your vascular health and overall risk of CVD in just minutes.

How accurate is the AngioDefender system?
Impaired %FMD of the brachial artery (the main artery in the upper arm) as measured by the gold standard test, Brachial Artery Ultrasound Imaging (BAUI), has been positively correlated with coronary heart disease and future CVD events. A 2010 study comparing AngioDefender with BAUI shows statistical equivalence between the two techniques.

What is an AngioDefender Score? What is a good score?
The AngioDefender system technology takes various readings during the test and converts them to an AngioDefender Score based on flow-mediated dilation (%FMD) of your brachial artery. Your healthcare provider interprets this score along with other factors, including age and lifestyle, to paint a comprehensive picture of your heart’s health and future risk of CVD.

How is the AngioDefender system data saved?
Your personal data is never stored on EveristHealth’s servers. Only your healthcare provider has access to your patient report and personal data.

American Heart Association
The American Heart Association is a non-profit organization in the United States that fosters appropriate cardiac care in an effort to reduce disability and deaths caused by cardiovascular disease and stroke.

Quitting Smoking When You're Older
If you’re older, you may wonder if it’s too late to quit smoking. Or you may ask yourself if it’s even possible to quit at your age, especially if you’ve tried more than once and haven’t been successful. offers info on quitting smoking for older adults on this new website.

The United Kingdom

British Heart Foundation
The British Heart Foundation is the UK’s number one heart charity. Coronary heart disease is the UK’s single biggest killer but we are leading the fight against it. Our pioneering research has helped to transform the lives of people living with heart and circulatory conditions.

National Health Service
Britain’s largest health site for information on diseases and disorders, patient care and engagement, and health news.


German Heart Foundation


Austrian Heart Foundation
Outpatient Clinics for Heart Failure in Austria


The Swiss Heart Foundation
Federal Office of Public Health

View our PATIENT FLYER for more info (pdf)

Learn more about what we can do for you